Inspired by legends, Giza is a huge Egyptian metropolis, which today is considered almost a suburb of the capital. It is interesting that initially this place was a cemetery for the pharaohs, so the answer to the question of what can be seen in Giza is easily reduced to one word - “pyramids”.
The number of tourists who seek to visit this unique museum city is prohibitively large. Although photographs of the sights of Giza can be found in any geographic magazine, the opportunity to capture yourself against the background of ancient tombs and personally look into the eyes of the Sphinx gives just an abyss of positive emotions!
History of the main attractions
Giza was the northern cemetery of the capital of Ancient Egypt - the city of Memphis. Five thousand years ago, grave diggers lived here mainly. The main monumental objects appeared on the territory of Giza during the fourth dynasty. In part, they have survived to this day.
The list of attractions in Egypt is headed by the pyramid of Cheops, which is considered the largest of all. Its base is a square with sides of 227.5 meters. The height of the structure at the time of construction was more than 146 meters. But today it is about nine meters lower - this is the result of earthquakes.
Egypt's main attraction is made up of two million solid stone blocks. The weight of each “brick” is two and a half tons. At the same time, this and other tombs were erected manually - by the efforts of many slaves.
Inside the historical monument are three burial chambers. However, the last monastery of Cheops was looted in antiquity, and archaeologists got only a granite sarcophagus in the chamber of the pharaoh.
Each of the faces of the structure is oriented to one of the cardinal points. The ancient Egyptians believed that this would help the soul of a deceased person to ascend into heaven. In the middle of the last century, the so-called Solar boat was discovered on the south side near the tomb. It was believed that on it the pharaoh would be able to "sail away" for trial to the deity of the underworld Anubis. The boat was destroyed, but experts were able to restore this ancient monument.
Two other sights of Giza are the pyramids of Chefren and Mykerin. They are smaller than the tomb of Cheops - 136 and 66.5 meters, respectively. At the tomb of Chefren, the basaltic cladding of the upper part and the complex of funeral temples (the lower temple - the road - the upper temple) are preserved. The tomb of Mykerin contains only one burial chamber, which is cut out in the rock.
Nearby are burial churches. "Protects" the complex of the Great Sphinx - a monolithic statue of a lion with a human face. It is believed that this is the image of the pharaoh Chephren. The statue of the Sphinx is truly huge - it is approximately 20 meters high and about 73 meters in length.
The cultural value of the complex in Giza
The Egyptian pyramids are considered the only "wonder of the world" that has survived to this day. And the tomb of Cheops is one of the most ambitious sights of the Earth. Today, the historical complex is being restored and cherished. But this was far from always.
Throughout its history, Egyptian monuments were not only tested by winds and earthquakes, but also suffered from the hands of robbers. The cladding of buildings was relatively recently used for the construction and restoration of buildings in Cairo, but now the attitude towards them has changed - every year one of the tombs is closed for restoration.
You can get to the Giza Plateau along the Pyramids Road, located in the west of Cairo. The historic complex is located on the outskirts of the city. Those who wish to see the sights of Egypt are offered different excursions - tourists can see not only the three main tombs, but also the place where the Sun Rook, the Museum of Egyptian Antiquities and the tombs of the wife and mother of the pharaoh Chefren are located. There are souvenir shops, cafes and restaurants. Tourists are also offered a camel ride.
You can get inside the tombs for a fee. However, you should refrain from this if you suffer from asthma, claustrophobia, or heart disease. Visiting the pyramids is also contraindicated for those who are allergic to dust.
If you are going to visit the pyramids of Giza, choose morning excursions - at this time it is still not very hot. However, for lovers of evening and night walks there are also late programs during which you can appreciate the greatest monuments of antiquity in the rays of the setting sun.
The site contains the sights of Giza - photos, descriptions and travel tips. The list is based on popular guides and is presented by type, name and rating. Here you will find answers to questions: what to see in Giza, where to go and where there are popular and interesting places of Giza.
The Pyramid of Cheops
The Khufu Pyramid (Cheops) is the largest pyramid and the only surviving miracle from the "Seven Wonders of the World." Inside the pyramid are three chambers for burials, placed one above the other.
It is assumed that the construction of Khufu lasted 20 years and ended by 2540 BC.
Officially in Egypt, the date of the beginning of the construction of the greatest pyramid is set and celebrated - August 23, 2470 BC. Literally, the pyramid is called "Ahet-Khufu" (translated - "Horizon of Khufu") and consists of limestone blocks, granite and basalt.
The pyramid was built on a natural hill and initially had a lining of harder white limestone than the main blocks. However, in 1168 BC, the Arabs plundered and burned the city, and the inhabitants of Cairo had to remove the cladding shining in the sun from the pyramid in order to build new dwellings.
The entrance to the great pyramid is located at a height of more than 15 meters and forms large plates, decorated in the form of an arch.
Sahara is one of the hottest places on Earth. Although the temperature can rise to 60 degrees Celsius, it is arid rather than hot, which makes this place deserted and lifeless.
Being the largest desert in the world, the Sahara receives less than 7 centimeters of rain per year. Even in its most sedimentary parts, rains can pass 2 times a week, and then not return for many years.
After studying satellite photographs, some scientists came to the conclusion that the Sahara is regularly declining in some areas, and growing in others. In the early 1980s, on the southern edge of the desert, the dry strip separating it from the savannah increased several times. But by the mid-1980s, the area was again green and habitable.
For centuries, caravans marched through the Sahara desert. Even if there are oases here, the distance between them is so great that you need to go a few days to get to the saving island.
The oases provided an opportunity for trade between the ports of North Africa and southern countries. Without these rescue stops for people and animals, crossing the desert would have been nearly impossible.
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The Hafra Pyramid (Khefren) is the 2nd largest Egyptian pyramid and is located near the famous Sphinx, between the Khufu and Mykerin pyramids. Presumably it was built in the middle of the 26th century BC.
Its height for this period is 138.8 meters, which is almost 5 meters less than the original height - 143.5 meters. The side of the most beautiful pyramid of Hafra is 215.29 meters. The structure was covered with limestone, which can be seen only 45 meters at the top of the pyramid.
This pyramid is inferior in size to Khufu, however its steep slope and position on a higher elevation make it the most worthy rival of the greatest pyramid of Cheops.
In photo mode, you can view the sights in Giza only by photographs.
Mykirin Pyramid is the southernmost, as well as the lowest, of the three Egyptian pyramids in Giza. Pharaoh Mikerin laid the pyramid in the southwestern part of the plateau, quite far from the two already built pyramids. At the base of the pyramid lies a square with a side of 108.4 meters. The height of the pyramid is 62 meters, which is almost two times lower than the pyramids of Cheops and Chefren. The volume of the pyramid is 260 thousand cubic meters, which is a tenth of the volume of the Cheops pyramid.
From the point of view of architectonics, it was not necessary to erect a very high pyramid, since the burial chamber was now located at ground level, and after Cheops, the idea of the high-altitude arrangement of the chambers was no longer embodied, possibly due to the technical difficulties of lifting blocks. Pyramid of Mycerinus. also known as the "Pyramid of Menkaur" is the beginning of another era, during which the size of the pyramids acquired a standard.
Another difference of this Egyptian pyramid is that it was built not on a rocky foundation, but on a specially prepared foundation of limestone slabs. The sarcophagus of the pharaoh was discovered, but it has not been possible to save it to this day. A rich sculptural collection was discovered in the memorial temple, the most valuable exhibits of which. now stored in Egyptian museums in Cairo and the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston.
The pink pyramid is the largest of the three pyramids that are located on the territory of the Dakhshur necropolis, as well as the third tallest in Egypt. It got its name because of the amazing color of the stone blocks that turn pink when the sun sets.
There used to be white limestone on the pyramid, but now it is absent, as a result of which pink stone began to be visible. The name of Pharaoh Snofr was found on the pyramid, which was painted in red on several blocks, so it is believed that the pyramid was built during his reign.
A pyramid is in its form a regular stereometric pyramid. The height of the pyramid reaches 104.4 meters. Entrance to it is free, but you need to be careful inside the pyramid because it has a pungent smell of ammonia.
White Desert National Park is located north of the Farafra Oasis. Many thousands of years ago, this stretch of desert was the bottom of a vast ocean. Then the water came down, and on the surface there remained karst formations that formed stunning landscapes.
Such a place as the White Desert, perhaps, can no longer be found on Earth. The terrain here is quite flat, so it’s good to travel on foot or by car. The second option will not be very convenient, since the sand is very soft. To get here is not so simple - first you need to get a special permission from the authorities, but local guides help to resolve these issues quickly enough. The desert is perfectly clean because tourists leave nothing behind. The order here is monitored very carefully, so all the garbage goes to recycling.
The White Desert is called because of its snow-white karst formations, which stand out clearly against the background of yellow sand. One of the most interesting karst formations is a white rock balancing on a white pillar, as if about to fall. The views here are absolutely fantastic, reminiscent of either a distant planet or an arctic landscape.
The Giza Plateau, not far from Cairo, is famous for having Egyptian pyramids known throughout the world.
The pyramids are located eight kilometers from the old city of Giza. From the center of Cairo, the path to them will reach twenty-five kilometers.
The pyramid complex includes the most famous Cheops pyramid or Khufu pyramid, then the smaller Hafra pyramid and Menkaur pyramid. The complex also includes several small accompanying buildings. On the eastern side of the necropolis is the Great Sphinx, which is rightfully considered one of the tourist symbols of Egypt.
The Egyptian pyramids are one of the main world attractions that most tourists want to see. Indeed, it is here that you can plunge into history, forget about time and feel like a resident of another era. An interesting fact is that the Cheops pyramid is the only monument of the seven wonders of the ancient world that has been preserved and can be seen firsthand.
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