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Nepal: Mount Everest

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Chomolungma either Everest or Sagarmatha is the highest mountain in the world. Yes, Chomolungma and Everest are one and the same. To those who don’t know where is Chomolungma located, let’s say that the mountain is part of the Mahalangur-Himalaya mountain range in the Himalayan mountain system, on the border of Nepal and Tibet. However, its top itself is located in China. Near Everest there are several more mountains above 7 kilometers - Nuptse, Changze, including another eight-thousander - Lhotse.

Mount Jomolungma (Everest) - elevation and facts

The height of Everest is 8848 meters, with the last 4 meters of solid ice. Chomolungma is “built” by nature in the form of a trihedral pyramid, the southern slope is more abrupt. Glaciers flowing from the massif in all directions, ending at an altitude of about 5 km. Mount Chomolungma partly part of the Nepalese Sagarmatha National Park. At the top of the Chomolungma there are strongest winds blowing at speeds up to 200 km / h.

The temperature at the top of Everest never rises above zero. The average norm in January is -36 ° C, but can fall to -60 at night. In July, the air warms up to -19.

And here is where Chomolungma is located on the map.

Jomolungma Mountain: a title story

Translated from Tibetan “Jomolungma” means “Divine (qomo) Mother (ma) of life (lung - wind or life force)”, named after the Bon goddess Sherab Chzhamma.

From Nepalese, the name of the peak "Sagarmatha" means "Mother of the Gods."

The English name that received Chomolungma - Everest (Mount Everest) awarded in honor of Sir George Everest, head of the geodetic service of British India in 1830-1843. This name was proposed in 1856 by the successor of George Everest, Andrew Vaugh, at the same time as the publication of the results of his collaborator Radhanat Sikdar, who in 1852 first measured the height of "Peak XV" and showed that it is the highest in the whole world.

Everest: climbing story

The first ascent of Jomolungma was made on May 29, 1953 by Sherp Tenzing Norgay and New Zealander Edmund Hillary through the South Saddle. They used oxygen devices.

In subsequent years, climbers from around the world - China, USA, India, Japan, Italy, joined the conquest of the mountain.

In the spring of 1975 Chomolungma, photo which you look further, is first stormed by a female expedition. The first woman to conquer Chomolungma was the Japanese climber Junko Tabei (1976). The first Polish and the first European to climb the summit was Wanda Rutkevich (1978). The first Russian woman to reach the top was Ekaterina Ivanova (1990).

In May 1982, 11 members of the Soviet expedition climbers climbed Everest, climbing the previously considered impassable south-western slope, with 2 ascents made at night. Prior to this, none of the climbers who were part of the expedition did not rise above 7.6 km.

In the following years, again along the classical path of first-climbers, climbers from Great Britain, Nepal, the USA, South Korea, Austria and other countries climb Mount Everest.

Usually, Chomolungma Mountain submits to climbers in oxygen masks. At an altitude of 8 km, the air is thin and breathing is very difficult. The first to reach the summit without oxygen were the Italian Reinhold Messner and the German Peter Habeler in 1978.

Flying Over Everest

In 2001, a married couple from France, Bertrand and Claire Bernier, flew down from the top on a tandem glider.

In May 2004, the Italian Angelo D’Arrigo for the first time in the history of ballooning flew a hang glider over the top of the highest mountain in the world.

On May 14, 2005, test pilot Didier Delsalle successfully landed a Eurocopter AS 350 Ecureuil helicopter to the top of the mountain. This was the first such landing.

In 2008, 3 paratroopers landed on the summit, jumping from a plane flying at an altitude of just under 9 km (142 m above the highest point of the mountain).

Chomolungma and ski slopes

The first attempt to descend from the summit by skiing was made in 1969 by the Japanese Miura. It ended not in the way he planned, Miura almost fell into the abyss, but miraculously managed to escape and survived.

In 1992, a skier, Frenchman Pierre Tardevel, went skiing down Everest. He moved down from the southern peak, located at an altitude of 8571 m, and covered 3 km in 3 hours.

After 4 years, the Italian skier Hans Kammerlander descended from a height of 6400 m along the northern slope.

In 1998, the Frenchman Cyril Desremo made the first descent from the top on a snowboard.

In 2000, the Slovenian Davo Karnichar moved downhill from the Jomolungma.

Climbing Mount Everest: Corpses

Since the first ascent to the summit in 1953 Chomolungma became a cemetery for more than 200 people. The bodies of the dead often remain on the slopes of the mountain due to the difficulties associated with their evacuation. Some of them serve as a guide for climbers. The most common causes of death: lack of oxygen, heart failure, frostbite, avalanches.

Even the most expensive and modern equipment does not always guarantee a successful ascent to the highest peak in the world. Nevertheless, every year on average about 500 people try to conquer Chomolungmu. The total number has exceeded 3,000 people.

Climbing to the top takes about 2 months - with acclimatization and setting up camps. Weight loss after climbing is an average of 10-15 kilograms. The main season for climbing Mount Everest is spring and autumn, since there are no monsoons at this time. The most suitable season for climbing the southern and northern slopes is spring. In autumn you can only rise from the south.

Currently, a significant part of the ascents is organized by specialized firms and is performed as part of commercial groups. The clients of these companies pay for the services of guides who provide the necessary training, provide equipment and, as far as possible, ensure safety along the way.

The cost of an all-inclusive climb (equipment, transport, guides, porters, etc.) is on average from 40 to 80 thousand US dollars, and the permission to climb issued by the government of Nepal alone costs from 10 to 25 thousand dollars per person (depending on group size). The cheapest way to conquer the Chomolungma from Tibet.

A significant part of the travelers reaching the summit are currently rich tourists with minimal mountaineering experience.

According to experts, the success of the expedition depends on the weather and equipment. Climbing Mount Everest continues to be a serious test for everyone, regardless of their degree of preparation.

A significant role is played by acclimatization before climbing Mount Everest. A typical expedition from the southern side spends up to two weeks to climb from Kathmandu to the Jomolungma base camp at an altitude of 5364 meters, and it takes another month to acclimatize to the altitude before making the first attempt to climb the summit.

The most difficult part of climbing Mount Everest is the last 300 meters, called by climbers "the longest mile on Earth." To successfully pass this section, you need to overcome a steep smooth stone slope covered with powdery snow. No less difficult is the conquest of Chogori.

Chomolungma (Everest) and ecology

The number of tourists visiting the mountain (not the top) from Nepal and Tibet over the past ten years was hundreds of thousands. The volume of garbage accumulated on the slopes of the mountain is so great that Chomolungma (Everest) is “the highest mountain dump in the world”. According to environmentalists, after conquerors there is an average of 3 kg of garbage for each.

Reviews and travel stories

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Traveling in the Tibet Autonomous Region (TAP) is extremely strictly regulated by the Chinese government. To enter the territory of the TAP, you must obtain a special permit. In addition, one permite is not enough. Read more →

e3yk | April 2014

To get to the Everest region, you can board a small motor plane and fly to Lukla in 40 minutes, looking at the beautiful peaks from a height (unless, of course, the clouds hide them) Read more →

It took us another hour to descend. The view of the so-called pronounced ascent path to the pass led us simply into a stupor. But the Russians do not give up, I had to climb. Read more →

Svetlana Mezhakova | October 2010

Everyone who wants to try their hand or see the wild beauty, must definitely go to Nepal! One “but”: you need to carefully prepare for such trips. Unfortunately, Moscow travel agencies do not have complete information about the ascent. That is why a lot of things along the route came as a surprise to us: living conditions, food, and dusty roads. And the route itself turned out to be more complicated than it was announced. Read more →

Ksenia Shakun | November 2008

The trip to Nepal happened quite unexpectedly: I hadn’t planned anything of the kind in the near future. In February, a friend called and said that Aeroflot was holding a rally, selling very cheap tickets, in particular, to Delhi, and on this occasion you should definitely go to Nepal (there is no direct flight to Kathmandu from Moscow). Read more →

Elena Burova | April-May 2005

. It is unfortunate that the journey is coming to an end, but these amazing mountains and wonderful people will always be remembered. Tomorrow the plane will bring a new group of tourists who will pose against the backdrop of the mountains, not realizing that this is only the beginning of a long journey and upon return they will become a little different than now. These are the laws of the mountains. Read more →

Mount Everest (Chomolungma)

Everestalso known as Chomolungmais the highest point of our planet. It is called, quite rightly, the "roof of the world", the "divine" and even the "mountain of death." Many brave souls dedicated their life to the desperate idea of ​​taking this height. They were not stopped either by solar radiation, dangerous to humans, or by a piercing heavy wind, the speed of which reaches 55 meters per second, or by sudden collapses. More than 260 people have found the last refuge in the snow and abyss of Everest on the way to their dream.

However, there are other statistics - optimistic. Each year, over 500 thousand tourists come to the highest peak of the globe to admire the majestic beauty of these places. This indicator, which has a tendency to increase, allows us to classify the Jomolungma as one of the most visited attractions on the planet. For many people, visiting here means fulfilling their most cherished dream. And when travelers are asked why they are striving for Everest, because not everyone reaches the peak, they answer: “Because he is!”

Location and features

Chomolungma is located in the Himalayan mountain system, namely in the ridge Mahalangur-Himal, which is located on the border of the Republic of Nepal and the Tibet Autonomous Region of the PRC.

The height of its northern peak, located in China and considered the main one, is 8848 meters. This is an absolute record among the highest mountains of the Earth, of which there are 117 (all of them are concentrated in the region of Central and South Asia). The southern peak is slightly lower, 8760 meters, and it can be called "international": it is located on the border of two countries.

The mountain is like a trihedral pyramid. The slope and ribs from the south are so steep that snow and glaciers are not kept on them. There is no snow cover and the rock wall. The remaining ribs, starting from about 5 km high, are covered with glaciers.

3D animation of Chomolungma and the surrounding landscape

Part of Everest, located on the side of Nepal, is part of the Sagarmatha National Park. That is - Sagarmatha - is called the highest peak of the world in Nepali (translated - "Heavenly peak"). From this side it is obscured by the mountains of Nuptse (7879 m) and Lhotse (8516 m). Beautiful views of it open from the surrounding mountains of Kala Pathar and Gokyo Ri.

Chomolungma - this name is translated from Tibetan as “Lady of the Winds” - one of ten mountain peaks, the so-called eight-thousanders located in the Himalayas (there are only 14 in the world). Undoubtedly, it remains the most attractive target for climbers around the world.

How the height of Everest was calculated

It is noteworthy that until 1852, the highest peak of the planet was considered the multi-summit Dhaulagiri massif, also located in the Himalayas. The first topographical studies conducted from 1823 to 1843 did not refute this claim.

After some time, doubts nevertheless began to arise, and the Indian mathematician Radhanat Sikdar became their first carrier. In 1852, at a distance of 240 km from the mountain, he, using trigonometric calculations, made the assumption that Chomolungma or, as it was called then, Peak XV is the highest peak in the world. Only four years later, more accurate practical calculations confirmed this.

Data on the height of the Jomolungma often changed: according to popular assumptions of that time, it was approximately 8872 meters. However, the English aristocrat and geodesist George Everest, who headed the survey service of British India from 1830 to 1843, was the first who managed to determine not only the exact location of the Himalayan peak, but also its height. In 1856, Chomolungme was given a new name in honor of Sir Everest. But China and Nepal did not agree with this renaming, although the merits of the outstanding surveyor were beyond doubt.

Today, according to officially confirmed data, Everest is located at an altitude of 8 km 848 m above sea level, of which the last four meters are continuous glaciers.

The path to the peak of Kala Pattar (5 545 m). Everest is visible on the left. View of the summit of Ama Dablam.

Who are they, courageous pioneers?

The organization of ascents to the "roof of the world" and the conduct of scientific research there were difficult not only because of the high cost of such events. Nepal and then still independent Tibet for a long time remained closed to foreigners. Only in 1921 the Tibetan authorities gave the go-ahead and the first expedition began reconnaissance of possible routes for climbing Mount Everest along the northern slope. In 1922, monsoons and snowfall prevented researchers from reaching the summit, climbers used oxygen tanks for the first time, and reached the mark of 8320 meters.

Buddhist shrines and memorials meet on the way to the top

Englishman George Herbert Lee Mallory, a 38-year-old assistant professor from Cambridge and a famous climber with extensive experience, was obsessed with the idea of ​​conquering Everest. In 1921, a group under his leadership reached a height of 8170 meters and set up camp, and he himself went down in history as a man who for the first time intended to conquer this proud and impregnable height. Subsequently, he made two more attempts to climb, in 1922 and 1924. The third of them was the last and ... fatal. On June 8, they, along with a bunch of teammates, 22-year-old student Andrew Irwin, went missing. They were last seen from the ground with binoculars at an altitude of about 8500 meters. And then - that's it: fearless researchers suddenly disappeared from sight ...

Mallory's fate became clear only after 75 years. On May 1, 1999, an American search expedition discovered the remains of a brave climber at an altitude of 8230 meters. There was no doubt that it was him. He was identified by the patch on his clothes, “J. Mallory, ”as well as a letter from his wife found in her breast pocket. The corpse itself lay face down with outstretched arms, as if trying to hug a mountain. When he was turned over, his eyes were closed, which meant only one thing: death did not come suddenly. Further examination of the remains of the first victim of Jomolungma revealed that the legendary researcher received fractures of the tibia and tibia.

Glacier near the base camp from Nepal. Trail to the top at an altitude of about 5000 meters.

Thus, two versions were immediately refuted: about death from falling from a great height, and about death during the descent. As for Irwin, his body has not yet been found, although it is obvious to everyone that he also died then. And, most likely, then he was blown away by a strong wind into the nearest abyss, the depth of which is not less than 2 km.

Another famous conqueror of the Chomolungma was the British officer and climber Edward Felix Norton, who reached 8565 meters in 1924, which was an absolute record that held for the next thirty years.

In the period from 1921 to 1952, about 11 unsuccessful attempts were made to climb. In 1952, an expedition from Switzerland twice tried to conquer the summit. But the high-altitude workers returned with nothing.

Edmund Hillary in 1953

In 1953, New Zealand climbers joined the English expedition. On May 29, 1953, the 34-year-old New Zealander Edmund Hillary and the 39-year-old representative of the Nepalese Sherpa Tenzing Norgay became the first people on Earth who ascended to the "roof of the world." They spent only 15 minutes there: due to insufficient oxygen, they simply couldn’t do it anymore. Norgay symbolically buried cookies and sweets in the snow - as an offering to the gods. It's funny that he could not take a picture of the New Zealander, at the top it turned out to capture only Nepalese.

Mount Everest (Chomolungma)

Tenzing Norgay tried seven times with other expeditions to climb to the top of the Jomolungma. Each time he did this with a special philosophy of the representative of the mountain people. As the Sherpa later recalled in his book Tiger of the Snows, there was no bitterness in him. He felt like a child climbing onto his mother’s lap.

What did they feel, a citizen of a distant island state in the Pacific Ocean and a native of the mountain Himalayan kingdom, who became the first conquerors of the top of the world? They hugged each other, feeling patted each other on the back. Probably, the whole gamut of these emotions cannot be expressed in words.

Everest at sunset

The world learned about the conquest of Everest only three days later. It is difficult to overestimate the significance of this event. Restless Hillary, along with the expedition, crossed Antarctica a few years later. The British Queen Elizabeth II, who is also the monarch of New Zealand, knighted him. Also, a New Zealand climber became an honorary citizen of Nepal. In 1990, the son of Hillary Peter rose to the top.

After 1953, expeditions from the United States, India, Italy, and Japan were sent to the "roof of the world." The first American to step on top of the Jomolungma was Jim Whittaker. This happened on May 1, 1963. After some three weeks, the world was waiting for a sensation akin to its first conquest - American climbers crossed the Western ridge, where a man’s foot had not yet set foot.

Since 1975, representatives of the weaker sex moved to storm the highest peak of the planet. The first woman to conquer Everest was the climber from the Land of the Rising Sun, Junko Tabei, and Polish citizen Wanda Rutkevich, the first European in this capacity. In 1990, the first Russian woman reached the summit, it was Ekaterina Ivanova.

Desperate conquerors of peaks

More than 4 thousand people have already visited the top of the Jomolungma. Many more than once. For example, the Nepalese climber Apa Sherpa conquered her 21 times. Scientists say mountain dwellers find it easier to stay at that height. Nevertheless, the record set by the local resident Churim, who climbed to the top twice in a week, is surprising.

Everest research is primarily a test of the limit of human capabilities. The Italian R. Messner and the German P. Habeler in May 1978 climbed a mountain without oxygen masks. Messner subsequently rose more than once alone and set a series of records. He was the first to overcome the summit during the monsoon, passed without the help of porters, and in record time mastered the new route. When you study the biographies of such desperate daredevils, you understand that the desire to conquer the peaks is like passion or illness.

Climbing Chomolungma

In 1982, the Soviet expedition first climbed Chomolungma along a difficult route from the southwest wall. The choice of athletes was similar to the selection of astronauts. 11 people climbed, one climber was without an oxygen mask, one climbed the summit at night. The photographs show that the beauty from such a natural viewing platform opens up extraordinary. Can not convey in words what a wonderful sight it is at night, in the light of stars.

How the blind American Erich Weihenmeyer (2001) and Mark Inglis with amputated legs (2006) were able to reach the summit - only they know. The goal of the daredevils was to show people around the world that achieving this goal is a reality. And they did it!

Extreme cases

In the history of the conquest of Everest, human courage often borders on craziness. A person is tireless in the desire to set new records and achievements, especially of this kind, with the prospect of going down in history.

The first attempt to go downhill from skiing was made by the Japanese Miura, who only miraculously did not fall into the abyss. Less lucky French snowboarder Marco Siffredi. The first time the descent from the summit along the side of Norton’s corridor ended safely. In 2001, a brave athlete wished to take another route, on the sidelines of Hornbein - and went missing.

The speed of the skiers can be judged by the descent of the Frenchman Pierre Tardevel. From a height of 8571 meters, he traveled 3 km in 3 hours. In 1998, the first Frenchman Cyril Desremo came down from the top on a snowboard. In the distant 1933, on a biplane (an airplane with two wings located one above the other), the Marquis Clydesdale and David MacIntyre flew over the top of the mountain.

The pilot Didier Delsalle first landed a helicopter on top of the mountain in 2005. They flew over Everest in hang gliders and paragliders, jumped from an airplane by parachute.

Climbing today

On the conquest of Everest (Chomolungma), about 500 people a year are decided. This is a very expensive pleasure. Possible rise from both Nepal and China. Departure from the first will cost more, while from Chinese territory it will be cheaper, but technically more difficult. Commercial companies that specialize in escorting to the top of the highest mountain of the planet, request from 40 to 80 thousand dollars. The amount includes the cost of modern equipment, payment for porters. Only the permission of the government of Nepal can cost from 10 to 25 thousand dollars. The climb itself lasts up to two months.

Namche Bazar is a village on the way to Everest, which has an expanded tourist infrastructure, where travelers can gain strength and prepare for climbing

An example of a 16-day trek with a climb to Mount Kala Pathar

It is naive to think that without good health and proper physical preparation you can swipe at such a difficult and serious event. Climbers expect difficult climbing, inhuman loads, cutting steps in ice, building bridges through cracks in the most severe environmental conditions. About 10,000 kilocalories per day a person spends when climbing Mount Everest (instead of the usual 3 thousand). During the ascent, climbers lose up to 15 kg of weight. And not everything depends on themselves, on the level of their training. A sudden hurricane or collapse can be knocked down and carried into the abyss, and an avalanche will crush like a small bug. Nevertheless, more and more daredevils decide to climb.

Kathmandu, the capital of Nepal, is reached by plane. The journey to the base camp takes about two weeks. It is located at an altitude of 5364 meters. The path here is not very difficult, difficulties begin further. During adaptation to the extreme conditions of Everest, the climbs alternate with the descents to the camp. The body gets used to the discharged air, cold. In preparation for climbing, every detail is carefully checked. When a person is above the abyss, his life often depends on the strength of the cable and a steel carbine hammered into the rock.

Above 7500 meters, the so-called "death zone" begins. Oxygen in the air is 30% less than under normal conditions. Blinding sun, knocking down wind (up to 200 km per hour). Not everyone will withstand such realities that some of the researchers compared with the Martian ones.

Last meters View from the top of Everest

A mild cold can result in pulmonary or cerebral edema. The cardiovascular system works at the limit. Frostbite, fractures and dislocations during ascents are not uncommon. But you must also go down again, which is no less difficult.

“The longest mile on Earth,” the climbers of the last 300 meters are called, the most difficult stretch. It is a steep, very smooth slope, powdery with snow. And here she is - the "roof of the world" ...

Climatic conditions, flora and fauna

In summer, the temperature on Everest does not rise above -19 degrees during the day, and at night it drops to minus 50. The coldest month is January. Often the temperature drops to 60 degrees below zero.

Of course, in such extreme conditions, the animal and plant world cannot be rich and diverse. On the contrary, he is very scarce. However, it is here that the most living representative of the terrestrial fauna lives - the Himalayan jumping spider. His individuals were found at an altitude of 6700 meters, which seemed simply unthinkable for the existence of life.

A little lower, at the level of 5500 meters, a perennial herbaceous plant grows - yellow gentian. Even higher, at an altitude of 8100 meters, the researchers observed a mountain daw or nest, a member of the corvidae family, a close relative of the alpine daw.

Ecological situation

Recently, scientists have been sounding the alarm and calling to block access to the highest peak in the world. The reason is the catastrophic pollution level of Everest and its environs.

Everyone who is here leaves behind about 3 kg of garbage. According to preliminary estimates, more than 50 tons of waste accumulated on the mountain. Volunteer teams were organized to clear the slopes of traces of human activity.

However, modern equipment and laid routes only increase the number of visitors here, traffic jams even occur on the tracks. And the flow of tourists to the foot of the Chomolungma is growing every year ...

Content

It is located in the Himalayas, in the ridge Mahalangur-Himal (in the part called Khumbu-Himal). The southern peak (8760 m) lies on the border of Nepal and the Tibet Autonomous Region (China), the northern (main) peak (8848 m) is located in China.

Everest has the shape of a trihedral pyramid, the southern slope is steeper. Snow and firn are not kept on the southern slope and ribs, as a result of which they are bare. The height of the Northeast shoulder is 8393 m. The height from the foot to the top is about 3550 m. The summit consists mainly of sedimentary deposits.

From the south, Everest is connected by the South Saddle Pass (7906 m) with Lhotse (8516 m), sometimes called the Southern Peak. From the north, the steeply falling sharply sharpened Northern saddle (7020 m) connects Everest with the Northern peak - Changze (7553 m). To the east, the impenetrable eastern wall of Kangshung (3350 m) abruptly breaks off. Glaciers flowing from the massif in all directions, ending at an altitude of about 5000 m.

The average daily temperature at the top of the Jomolungma in July is about −19 ° C, in January −36 ° C (and can drop to −60 ° C). Since the height of the peak is almost at the lower boundary of the high-altitude jet stream, sudden storms with gusts of wind up to 160 km / h are quite characteristic. Precipitation falls in the form of snow during the summer monsoon, which lasts from late May to mid-September.

The first map of Tibet was issued in 1719 based on intelligence conducted by Lamas Curqin Zangbu and Lanben Zhainba in 1712-1717, as directed by the Emperor of China. On a European copy of the map compiled by De’Anville, the place roughly corresponding to the location of the mountain was called “Tchoumou Lancma”, while the original Chinese ideogram sounded like “Jumu Langma Alin”. In the Indian review of 1846-47, the mountain was referred to as Discovery, Peak-B, Peak-H, and Peak-XV, until the latter in 1856, at the suggestion of the head of the geodetic service of British India, Andrew Scott Wo en received the name of his predecessor George Everest. Until the end of the 19th century, such names as “Jomokangar”, “Jhomogangar”, “Chamokankar”, “Deodangar”, “Bhirab Langur”, “Bharab Than”, “Nyanam”, “Chingopamari V Gualham” and others , but in the absence of evidence that they are the local name of Everest, none of them was considered seriously by geographical science. The first explorer from Indian Observation to visit the Everest region from the Nepalese side was Natha Singh, who first heard the name “Chholungbif”. In December 1920, an employee of the British mission Charles Bell, who settled the organization of the first British expedition to Everest, in addition to "kindness" from the Dalai Lama received parchment in which the sentence was written in Tibetan, part of which sounded like "... a monastery of the country of birds of the south - Lho Cha-Mo-Lung (... Monastery is the bird country of the south, Lho Cha-Mo Lung). " Later, in Lhasa, one of the secretaries of the Dalai Lama explained to him that “Cha-Mo Lung” is an abbreviation for “Cha-Dzi-Ma-Lung-Ma”, and “Lho” is simply the designation of the south. The perm, issued by the official authorities of Tibet to the first British expedition to Everest, also featured the name "Chha-Mo-Lung Ma", the same name was used in the permits of 1922, 1933 and 1936. The modern name was established in geographical science in the 1960s. In various versions of the translation from Tibetan, according to Bell, the name can be interpreted as "Divine Mother of the Earth" or "Divine Mother of the Wind." Among Sherpas, in the common people, the name of the mountain is interpreted as "A mountain over which birds cannot fly." The Nepalese name “Sagannatha” also first appeared in the 1960s during the demarcation of the border of Nepal and China, which runs along the top.

Translated from Tibetan "Chomolangma"(ཇོ་ མོ་ གླང་ མ) means" Divine (ཇོ་ མོ) Mother (མ) of vital energy (གླང). " The mountain is named after the Bon goddess Sherab Chzhamma (Sherab "wisest", Cham-ma "loving mother"), personifying maternal energy. Another Tibetan peak name is “Chomogangkar» ( ཇོ་མོ་གངས་དཀར ): «Holy Mother, white as snow» .

The first to determine that the Chomolungma is the highest peak on Earth was the Indian mathematician and topographer Radhanat Sikdar. In 1852, on the basis of trigonometric calculations and compilation of data obtained as a result of at least six observations, he came to the conclusion that Peak XV is the highest on Earth, and not Kanchenjunga, as previously thought. He also calculated the approximate height of the eight-thousander, which amounted to exactly 29,000 feet (8839 m), to which the head of the British Indian Survey Service Andrew Scott Wo — the successor of George Everest, added a couple of feet so that Sikdar’s calculations did not look “rounded”. The results of Sikdar's calculations were officially published in March 1856.

After 100 years, in 1952-1954, Indian topographers repeated measurements of the height of the peak, and in 1955, its height was 29028 feet (8848 m) above sea level universally accepted by geographical science.

In 1975, the Chinese, as a result of their own measurements, estimated the height of the peak at 29,029.24 feet (8848.11 m), and Italian surveys of 1987 showed a height of 29,108 feet (8872 m). In 1992, Italians using GPS and laser measurement technology received a true height of 8846 m (minus the 2-meter height of the snow-ice peak "cap"). The methodology of all these measurements, however, has been called into question.

In 1999, an American expedition funded by the National Geographic Society, using high-precision GPS equipment, determined a peak height of 29,035 feet (8850 m) +/- 6.5 feet (2 meters). In 2005, another Chinese expedition determined the height of the rocky level of the peak as 8844.43 m, which Nepal did not agree with, and insisted on the classic estimate of 8848 m.In 2010, the parties reached a compromise - the official height of the Jomolungma is fixed at 8848 m above sea level, and the height of the hard rock is 8844 m. The height of the mountain 8850 m was also accepted as fundamental by many experts in the field of geodesy and cartography.

After the 2015 Nepal earthquake, according to the UNAVCO nonprofit geophysical research consortium, the height of the Jomolungma decreased by about 2.54 centimeters (1 inch).

Everest, being the highest peak of the Earth, attracts great attention of climbers, climbing attempts are regular.

Climbing to the top takes about 2 months - with acclimatization and setting up camps. Weight loss for climbing - an average of 10-15 kg. Countries on the territory of which there are approaches to the summit pay a fee not only for climbing it, but also for a number of compulsory services (transport, communications officer, translator, etc.). The ascending order of expeditions is also being established. The cheapest way is to conquer Chomolungma from Tibet (China) along the classical route from the north.

The main season for climbing to the top is spring and autumn, since there are no monsoons at this time. The most suitable season for climbing the southern and northern slopes is spring. In autumn you can only rise from the south.

A significant part of the ascents is organized by specialized firms and is performed as part of commercial groups. The clients of these companies pay for the services of guides who provide the necessary training, provide equipment and, as far as possible, ensure safety along the way. The cost of climbing is up to 85 thousand US dollars, and the permission to climb issued by the government of Nepal alone costs 10 thousand dollars.

In the 21st century, due to the development of tourism infrastructure, there has been a significant increase in annual ascents, since in 1983, 8 people reached the top, in 1990 - about 40, then in 2012, 234 people climbed Mount Everest in just one day. During the climb, many hours of traffic jams and even fights between climbers were noted.

According to experts, the success of the expedition depends on the weather and equipment of travelers. Climbing the Homolungma continues to be a serious test for everyone, regardless of the degree of his preparation. A significant role is played by acclimatization before climbing Mount Everest. A typical expedition from the southern side spends up to two weeks to climb from Kathmandu to the base camp at an altitude of 5364 m, and it takes about a month to acclimatize to the altitude before making the first attempt to climb the summit.

The most difficult part of climbing Everest is the last 300 m, nicknamed climbers on the mountain "the longest mile on Earth." To successfully pass this section, you need to overcome the steepest smooth stone slope covered with powdery snow.

Difficulties Edit

Climbing Mount Everest in order to reach the highest point of the mountain is characterized by exceptional difficulty and sometimes ends in the death of both climbers and the Sherpa porters accompanying them. The indicated difficulty is due to particularly unfavorable climatic conditions of the apical zone of the mountain due to the considerable height of its position. Among the climatic factors unfavorable for the human body: a high rarefaction of the atmosphere and, as a result, an extremely low oxygen content in it, bordering on a deadly low value, low temperatures up to −50 ... −60 ° C, which, in combination with periodic hurricane winds, is subjective it is felt by the human body as a temperature of up to −100 ... −120 ° C and can lead to extremely quickly occurring temperature injury, intense solar radiation at such altitudes is of no small importance. These features are complemented by "standard" mountaineering dangers inherent in much less high peaks: avalanches, a precipice from steep slopes, a fall into the crevices of the relief.

Climbing History Edit

Until the first ascent to the summit, which took place in 1953, about 50 expeditions to the Himalayas and Karakoram (to Jomolungma, Chogori, Kanchenjunga, Nangaparbat and other peaks) were carried out. Their participants managed to conquer several seven-thousandths of these mountain regions, but not one attempt to storm the peaks of eight-thousandths was successful. In 1950, the French managed to conquer the first eight-thousander - Annapurna.

English climbers have achieved the greatest result when trying to climb Mount Everest, thanks to the use of oxygen. After the reconnaissance expedition of 1921, the expedition of 1922 followed, in which George Finch and Geoffrey Bruce reached an altitude of 8320 m, using oxygen for the first time. In 1924, Norton reached an altitude of 8565 m, and George Mallory and Andrew Irwin (as N. Odell estimated) over 8600 m. According to some reports, the last time they were seen alive 150 meters from the top (through binoculars, in a gap of clouds) . There is a version that they died already during the descent from the top, and the debate about whether they reached it or not continues today. Mallory's body was discovered in 1999. In 1933, P. Vin-Harris, L. Weiger and F. Smith reached an altitude of 8565 m. In 1934, eccentric Maurice Wilson, who did not have special mountaineering training and believed that he would be elevated to the summit by supernatural forces, died at height about 7 km, although later it was sometimes believed that he pitched a tent found by later expeditions at an altitude of 8.5 km. The following British expeditions were undertaken in 1936 and 1938. In 1947, Canadian Earl Denman with two Sherpas was able to rise only to 6.7 km.

Participants in the expeditions until 1949 tried to climb the highest point of the planet from the north, from Tibet, because the territory of Nepal until 1948 was closed to Europeans. The first reconnaissance on Everest from the south, from the side of Nepal, was undertaken by the British in 1949. In 1950, Tibet actually closed for Europeans.

The first ascent was made on May 29, 1953 by Sherp Tenzing Norgay and New Zealander Edmund Hillary through the South Saddle - along the route explored by the Swiss on the eve. Climbers used oxygen devices. The expedition was attended by over 30 Sherpas.

In subsequent years, climbers of different countries of the world - the USA, USSR, China, India, Japan, Italy and other countries conquered the highest peak of the world.

May 1, 1963 Jim Whittaker (born Jim Whittaker) was the first American to step on top of Mount Everest. Three weeks later, the second group from the same American expedition made an even more stunning ascent - the first ascent of the previously unconquered Western ridge of Everest.

In the spring of 1975, a women's expedition stormed Everest for the first time. The first woman to conquer Chomolungma was the Japanese climber Junko Tabei (1976). The first European to climb the summit was the Polish Wanda Rutkevich (1978). The first Soviet climber to reach the summit was Ekaterina Ivanova (1990).

On September 24, 1975, the British expedition en led by Chris Bonington first crossed the Southwest Wall of Everest. Doug Scott and Dougal Haeston climbed to the top. Two days later, on September 26, Peter Boardman and Sherp Petemba (English Pertemba) repeated their way to the top. Following them, Mick Burke went missing.

In the following years, again along the classical path of first ascenders, climbers of Great Britain, Nepal, USA, South Korea, Austria and Germany climb Mount Everest, and Reinhold Messner and Peter Habeler reach the summit without using oxygen during the entire assault. As part of these expeditions, two more women - Polish Wanda Rutkevich (1978) and German Hannelore Schmats (died during the descent) - managed to conquer Everest. The French J. Athanasieuf and N. Zhezhe went skiing from 8 km to 6.5 km.

We managed to say a new word in the conquest of the peak to the Poles under the leadership of Andrzej Zavada pl. The first in the world they climbed the summit of Everest in winter. This ascent was made by Leszek Tsyha pl and Krzysztof Wielicki. Climbing was carried out along the southeast ridge at temperatures below −50 ° C on the last day of the validity period of the permit of local authorities to storm the summit. A few months later (in the spring of 1980), the Poles, led by the same A. Zavada, laid a new route to Everest. Andrzej Chok and Jerzy Kukuchka climbed the summit along the southern buttress.

As a rule, all climbers climb Mount Everest in oxygen masks. At an altitude of 8 km, the air is thin and breathing is very difficult. The first to reach the summit without oxygen were the Italian Reinhold Messner and the German Peter Habeler in 1978.

In 1980, Reinhold Messner, this time alone, again climbed Mount Everest and set several records at once. Messner was the first to conquer the summit alone without oxygen, without resorting to the help of high-altitude porters. In addition, he was the first to decide to challenge Everest during the monsoon and reached the goal. In addition, he overcame the path from the base camp, located at an altitude of 6.5 km, to the summit according to the new version of the route from the North in just 3 days.

In May 1982, 11 members of the Soviet expedition climbers climbed Everest, climbing the previously considered impassable south-western slope, and 2 ascents were made at night. Prior to this, none of the climbers who were part of the expedition did not rise above 7.6 km. The head of the expedition is Yevgeny Tamm (son of the outstanding physicist Igor Tamm), head coach Anatoly Ovchinnikov, coach Boris Romanov, captains of the assault fours - Valentin Ivanov, Ervand Ilyinsky, Eduard Myslovsky. The Soviet expedition was the 25th to reach the summit. The first to climb the summit were Vladimir Balyberdin and Eduard Myslovsky. Balyberdin climbed to the top without an oxygen apparatus. For the first time at night, Sergei Bershov climbed to the top of the Jomolungma on May 4, 1982 in conjunction with Mikhail Turkevich. On May 5, Valentin Ivanov and Sergey Efimov climbed. On the night of May 8-9, Kazbek Valiev, Valery Khrishchaty climbed to the top, and on May 9 - Valery Khomutov, Vladimir Puchkov and Yuri Golodov.

The climbing route was laid along the southwestern wall of the mountain and is considered one of the most difficult in the history of the assault on the Jomolungma. A collection of essays about this ascent was written by Soviet journalist Yuri Rost.

In 1984, for the first time, Australians climbed the summit of Everest. A team of five paved a new route called White Limbo along the North Wall. However, they did not use oxygen cylinders and the help of Sherpas, having climbed in the Alpine style. .

In 1988, New Zealand Lydia Brady became the first woman to reach the summit of Everest without an oxygen device.

In 1992, the Togliatti climbing team “Lada-Everest” made a group ascent to Everest, hoisting the flags of Russia, AvtoVAZ and AvtoVAZbank at its top. On May 12, 1992, 32 people visited the summit.

In the spring and summer of 2004, Russian climbers went along the most difficult route to the top - in the center of the North Wall. This largest Russian-wide expedition became the fourth largest event in the history of Russian mountaineering - after climbing Mount Everest in 1982, traverse Kanchenjunga in 1989 and the first ascent of the South Wall of Lhotse in 1990. The team included the best climbers under the leadership of Muscovite Viktor Kozlov - only 20 people from Moscow, Togliatti, Sochi, Krasnoyarsk, Novokuznetsk, Podolsk, Yekaterinburg, Rostov-on-Don, Novosibirsk and Kirov.

Records Edit

  • In 1996, Sherp Ang Rita visited the summit 10 times without oxygen tanks. After 4 years, another Sherpa Appa broke his record, reaching the summit for the 11th time. A total of Appa Tenzing visited the summit of Everest 21 times (as of May 2011).
  • In 1999, Sherpa Babu Shiri spent 21 hours at the summit, and this despite the fact that already at an altitude of 7925 m the dead zone begins - the air contains only a third of the amount of oxygen that is present in the atmosphere at sea level.
  • In May 2001, French snowboarder Marco Siffredi was the first to descend from the summit of Everest on a snowboard from Couloir Norton. The descent to the base camp took 2.5 hours. A year later, in the fall, Marco made a second ascent to Everest to go down a snowboard along the Couloir of Hornbein. After the ascent, the snowboarder single-handedly began to descend Hulbine's Couloir, and no one else saw him.
  • In 2001, a blind American Erik Weichenmeier made an amazing climb to Everest. By that time, he had already conquered all the highest mountain peaks on all continents. “By climbing the seven highest mountains of seven parts of the world, I was hoping to show people that goals that might seem unattainable are actually achievable,” Weichenmeier said in a statement.
  • On May 21, 2004, Pemba Dorje set a high-speed climb to Everest record: 8 hours 10 minutes from the base camp near the Khumbu glacier.
  • May 22, 2010 the peak was conquered by 13-year-old American Jordan Romero, who climbed with his father. Prior to this, the record belonged to the 15-year-old Min Kip Sherpa.
  • In May 2011, Nepali spiritual teacher Bhakta Kumar Raibyl set a new record for the duration of his stay at the top - 32 hours.
  • On May 12 and 19, 2012, a resident of Nepal named Chhurim set a record by going twice to Everest twice a week.
  • On May 23, 2013, 80-year-old Japanese Yuitiro Miura, having completed the ascent, became the oldest person to conquer the summit of Everest. Prior to this, the record belonged to a 76-year-old Nepalese named Min Bahadur Sherkhan.
  • May 24, 2014 the peak conquered the Indian girl Purna Malawath (13 years, 11 months). The climb went from the North side along the standard route using oxygen cylinders and the help of Sherpas. Purna became the youngest woman in the history of climbing Everest
  • On May 25, 2014, 72-year-old American climber Bill Burke climbed the summit of Everest along the standard route from the north side. Earlier, on May 23, 2009, Bill was already climbing Mount Everest at the age of 67 (climbing took the standard route from the south). Thus, Burke is the oldest climber who climbed Mount Everest from two sides (climbing was carried out at the age of more than 65 years).
  • On May 21, 2019, the Nepalese climber Kami Rita Sherpa set the world record for the number of successful climbs to the summit - 24 times (it climbed 23 times from the southern, Nepalese side and 1 time from the northern, Tibetan). Climbings were made between 1994 and 2019.

Statistics Edit

According to the Himalayan database, as of the end of 2017, 8306 ascents were made to the top of the Jomolungma, 4833 of the first climbers were made (the remaining ascents were repeated). Of this number, 5280 ascents were made from the southern (Nepalese) side, the rest from the northern (Tibetan-Chinese), and only 265 along non-classical routes. The death toll on December 4, 2017 is 288 people (173 climbers and 115 Sherpas). 181 people died while climbing from the south, the rest from the north.

According to early June 2018, the number of people who climbed to the top of the world increased by 715 people (476 from the south and 239 from the north). The death toll has also increased (by 5 people).

In the spring of 2019, the Nepal authorities issued a record number of lift licenses - 381 pieces. On May 22, 2019, more than 200 people tried to climb the mountain, because of the large number of people there was a queue. People had to wait about 12 hours to rise higher. Many climbers were severely worn out and frostbite, as a result 10 members of the group died.

Cases of Mass Death Edit

On the night of May 10–11, 1996, during the descent from the summit, five members of Rob Hall’s commercial expeditions of Rob Adventure’s commercial expeditions, including himself, Scott Fisher, the head of the Mountain Expedience en commercial expedition, as well as three climbers from the Indian National Expedition organized by the Indo-Tibet Border Police.Two more climbers who climbed that day received severe frostbite. In terms of the number of victims, the May tragedy became the largest since 1922, when seven porters of the British expedition to the Bomber Charles Bruce were killed in an avalanche that descended from the North Saddle.

The tragedy was widely publicized in the media and provoked controversy over the widest range of issues relating to both the organization of commercial ascents in general and the particular issues of mountain climbing (the use of oxygen, high-altitude ethics). Despite the fact that the accident clearly demonstrated the imperfection (at that time) of the organizations of commercial expeditions, their number only increased.

Many of the direct witnesses of this dramatic climb later published books that set out their own vision of the causes and circumstances leading to the accident, the most famous of which were the best-selling book “In the rarefied air” by John Krakauer, a client of Rob Hall (1997), and book of Anatoly Bukreev, - guide of "Mountain madness", "Ascension en" (1997). The tragedy on the northern route is partially described in Matt Dickinson's book “The Other Side of Everest” (2000). The most complete description of the actions of the Indian group was set forth in its article by its deputy leader.

Avalanche Descent in April 2014

On April 18, 2014, as a result of an avalanche at an altitude of about 5,800 meters (just below the first high-altitude camp) on the slope of the Jomolungma at least 13 Sherpas-conductors were killed. On April 21, the search and rescue operation was discontinued. According to official data from the government of Nepal, 13 people died in an avalanche, 3 people went missing (they are also considered dead).

The bodies of the dead Edit

The bodies of the dead in high areas often remain uncleaned due to the difficulties associated with their evacuation. In some areas, climbers are forced to step over dead bodies, some of which even serve as landmarks. So, the body of the Hindu Tsewang Paljor, who died in 1996, marks a height of 8500 meters and even has its own name - "Green Shoes" (for the bright green shoes of the deceased).

In general, there is an opinion that the slopes of Everest began to more and more resemble a cemetery.

Ski slopes Edit

  • The first attempt to descend from the summit by skiing was made in 1969 by the Japanese Miura. It ended not in the way he planned, Miura almost fell into the abyss, but miraculously managed to escape and survived.
  • In 1992, the French skier Pierre Tardevel went skiing down the Everest slope. He moved down from the southern peak, located at an altitude of 8571 m, and covered 3 km in 3 hours. After 4 years, the Italian skier Hans Kammerlander descended from a height of 6400 m along the northern slope. He was at the foot after 17 hours.
  • In 1998, the Frenchman Cyril Desremo made the first descent from the top on a snowboard.
  • In 2000, the Slovenian Davo Karnichar moved downhill from the Jomolungma.
  • In 2001, French snowboarder Marco Siffredi descended from the top on the side of Norton's lobby. The following year, he disappeared while descending from the lobby of Hornbeinen.
  • On April 3, 1933, two biplanes, flown by British pilots Marquis Clydesdale and David MacIntyre, made their first flight over the summit.
  • In 2001, a French couple, Bertrand and Claire Bernier, flew down from the top in a tandem paraglider.
  • In May 2004, the Italian Angelo D’ Arrigo for the first time in aviation history made a hang glider flight over the top of the highest mountain of the Earth.
  • On May 14, 2005, Eurocopter test pilot Didier Delsalle (French Didier Delsalle) successfully landed the Eurocopter AS 350 Ecureuil helicopter to the top of the mountain. This was the first such landing.
  • In 2008, 3 paratroopers (Wendy Smith, Holly Budge and Neil Jones) landed on the summit, jumping from a plane flying at an altitude of just under 9 km (142 m above the highest point of the mountain).
  • On May 21, 2011, the Nepalese Sano Babu and Lapka Sherpa, climbing Mount Everest, started on a tandem paraglider and flew at a height of 30 m above the summit, setting a world altitude record for this type of aircraft.

Since 2007, the Chinese company China Mobile has been providing satellite communications, but so far it is unstable and does not allow video conferencing.

On October 29, 2010, Ncell mobile operator (TeliaSonera Group) installed antennas in Nepal at an altitude of 5164 m. High-speed Internet appeared on Everest, covering the top of the mountain. Using the Internet, information is transmitted to the global network by the Jomolungma webcam, installed in 2011 by Italian scientists and being (in 2014) the tallest webcam in the world.

There is an assumption that over the past 90 years, the amount of ice has significantly decreased at the top.

The number of tourists visiting the mountain from Nepal in 2000-2003 was hundreds of thousands. The volume of garbage accumulated on the slopes of the mountain is so great that Everest is called "the highest mountain dump in the world."

In 2007, only the Chinese site of the highest peak of our planet was visited by 40 thousand tourists. According to environmentalists, 120 tons of garbage are left after them - an average of 3 kg each. The Nepalese airline Yeti Airlines has collected 17 tons of garbage in the vicinity of the village of Lukla, which is a transit point for climbers going to the main camp on Everest. It took about 2 months to remove so many beer bottles, plastic bags, aluminum cans, oxygen cylinders, ropes and broken stairs.

In May 2008, the Tibet Autonomous Regional Bureau of Environmental Protection in the region collected 8 tons of waste.

Also, the question of the burial of the bodies of dead climbers is very relevant, especially for local residents - Sherpas.

Since 2014, by a decision of the Ministry of Tourism and Civil Aviation of Nepal, it was decided that every climber climbing Mount Everest must return at least 8 kilograms of debris from the side of the mountain.

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